EAT LESS, SLEEP LESS, AND WORK MORE: A situational analysis of food insecurity in urban poor households in Mumbai, India
KMG conducted a mixed methods research study on assessing the extent of food insecurity among poor households in the slums of Mumbai. This study was conducted for the Mumbai-based NGO, Bombay Urban Industrial League for Development (BUILD), and initiated by Bread for the World (BftW), Stuttgart, Germany as a part of a larger project to understand poverty and hunger in the African and Asia Pacific countries and to develop effective strategies to address hunger.
A cross-sectional quantitative survey of 300 urban poor households revealed that 60 percent of the families suffered from severe food insecurity and were unable to obtain adequate food. A quantitative survey conducted across different types of food stores in the surveyed areas highlighted the issues of unavailability and inaccessibility of food for poor families. Focus groups and qualitative interviews with 50 women from low income households in the study area described the urban poor families’ perceptions of problems with the quality and quantity of food available, its accessibility and acceptability, experiences of hunger and the kind of work done to generate income to buy food. As part of this project, a documentary film on food insecurity among urban poor was also made.
Findings from this micro-study have been presented at the Right to Food Workshop in New Delhi (2010), and published in the peer-reviewed journal ‘Food Security’ (2012).
HEALTH COMMUNICATION STRATEGY DEVELPMENT
SNEHA-SURAKSHA-SAMMAN (CARE-PROTECTION-RESPECT): A social and behaviour change communication strategy for advancing maternal and child health outcomes in Madhya Pradesh
KMG conducted a formative research study on the maternal and child health situation in the state of Madhya Pradesh, using multiple research methods including desk review, stakeholder consultations, and qualitative interviews. Based on the gathered evidence and insights, KMG developed the SBCC strategy of ‘SNEHA-SURAKSHA-SAMMAN’ (CARE-PROTECTION-RESPECT).
This strategy is a systems-based approach to behaviour change that pushes for a holistic platform and concerted effort and (at the same time) addresses barriers to behaviour change at the family, community, and health provider level in Madhya Pradesh. At the individual / family level, households and families will be motivated to CARE for the mothers and women in their house. This will provide the required support for the woman to adopt the required healthy behaviour or access a health service on time. At the community level, community leaders will be encouraged to create a PROTECTIVE environment wherein women and mothers will no longer have to follow practices that may be detrimental for their health and their child’s health. At the health facility level, all the cadres of health workers, right from frontline staff to state personnel, will work to create positive communication with mothers and clients and ultimately a health setting where women are RESPECTED, and can trust the health staff. If these 3 components of Sneha-Suraksha-Samman are operationalized well across the household, community and health department, then women and mothers will adopt and maintain the priority behaviours, and this will eventually reduce maternal and child deaths in the state which has one of the highest maternal and infant mortality rates in the country.
This strategic approach of SNEHA-SURAKSHA–SAMMAN has been launched by the Honourable Chief Minister of the state of Madhya Pradesh, Shivraj Singh Chouhan and the Unicef-India celebrity brand ambassador for maternal and child health (Ms. Madhuri Dixit), and is currently being operationalized.
IMPLEMENTATION OF A SOCIAL BEHAVIOR CHANGE COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
LEADERSHIP HARYANA – Champions from sub-district staff of health department and community leaders (health-coaches) volunteer to mobilize villages to improve maternal and child health
Kalyani Media Group provided technical support to the National Health Mission (Haryana) to design and develop a social behavior change communication strategy using community mobilization a primary driver for improving maternal and child health outcomes in the state. This project was supported by Improving Healthy Behaviors Program (IHBP) and Family Health International (FHI-360) with funding from USAID. Based on this SBCC strategy, KMG also successfully implemented the operational SBCC project titled ‘Leadership Haryana’ on a pilot basis, in 72 villages in 3 districts of Panipat, Panchkula and Yamunanagar serving a population of 2,00,000 people.
KMG provided strategic support to NHM (Haryana) and IHBP, FHI 360 officers in the overall planning, implementation, monitoring and documentation of the pilot project. KMG consultants trained and provided supportive supervision and mentoring to champions (block level health staff) and health coaches (local volunteers from pilot villages), and liaised with community stakeholders including PRI members, school staff and vegetable vendors. KMG developed a customized Leadership Training Kit including text and audio-visual materials on health education, communication, personal development, and people-management.
In the pilot period, 140 health coaches in 72 villages across the 3 pilot districts conducted 15336 conversations, 1095 health service referrals, 589 group meetings and 38 community events including 29 signature campaigns with 15,000 signatures, 2 village-level school competitions and 7 block-level events with women, men and school students, informing them about anemia and antenatal care, influencing them to eat more iron-rich foods, increase ion in everyday diet, and utilize routine government health services. The successful implementation of this pilot project has built the capacity of the health department, strengthened the link between the department and the communities they serve, built the health improvement capacity of local communities and proven the effectiveness of a volunteer-leader led model in improving healthy and lifesaving behaviors.
Developing the CARE model for State Health Department staff in Andhra Pradesh
KMG designed and developed the CARE model for training health department staff in conducting BCC (behavior change communication) with end users (married women, mothers, community members). The CARE approach stands for C – courtesy; A – positive attitude; R – responsiveness; E – effectiveness. This approach uses a “moment of truth” approach whereby each and every interaction between a health provider and client can make or break the positive cycle of behavior change. KMG developed a training curriculum for the CARE model using key BCC principles and also trained the trainers for one district in newly formed, Telangana state. The CARE curriculum and training approach uses elements from various schools of psychology, human resource and change management will help staff at all levels and cadres to understand, appreciate and practice a caring approach to their patients and clients thereby improving outcomes. The consultancy is from the UNICEF state office in Andhra Pradesh.
DIGITAL HEALTH COMMUNICATION PRODUCTS
SBCC E-LIBRARY: Health communication materials at your fingertips
As part of a UNICEF-funded project, KMG has designed and successfully implemented a unique social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) digital library for the Madhya Pradesh State Health Department. This digital library is a one-stop shop or storehouse that makes available health communication material organized as per the RMNCH+A life stages, easily accessible to state, district and block-level staff with internet connectivity.
Showcasing the programs and successes of mDiabetes, the largest diabetes prevention mHealth program in the world
As part of the Clinton Global Initiative, KMG supported the international NGO Arogya World (working to prevent NCDs) in creating a video film for promoting the mDiabetes program, its activities, stakeholders and successes. This film was screened at the Clinton Global Initiative Annual Meeting – 2013, and widely appreciated. In 2014, KMG also provided technical assistance in editing and finalizing ten short films that document the stories of women around the world, of how they live and cope with NCDs.